in: International Journal of Communication, forthcoming.
The internet is often portrayed as offering new communication and information channels resistant to state control due to its decentralization. At the same time, the internet relies on a hierarchical physical infrastructure that, connecting the individual costumer to the internet, provides states with control opportunities. We argue that ownership of the internet infrastructure, in particular internet service providers (ISP) is critical to understanding state internet control since most direct forms of control require ISP to comply with government requests. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we systematically link documented internet shutdowns in sub-Sahara African countries to configurations of ISP state majority-ownership, regime type, and election violence. The results support a positive relationship between a temporary halt of internet provision and ISP majority-ownership by authoritarian states when facing election-related violence. Our study underlines the importance of varying ownership structures in explaining political effects of internet penetration, including its role in challenging authoritarian rule.
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